Beneficiaries and their projects
|Mr César Ordóñez - University of Geneva||Arctic Change: Resolving methane and CO2 concentrations and their fluxes in Baffin Bay|
|Dr Ian Delaney - University of Lausanne||Creating and continuing a record of sediment discharge from land-terminating glaciers in southwestern Greenland|
|Miss Imogen Gabriel - Oeschger Centre for Climate Change Research, University of Bern||Sampling campaign for volcanoclastic material for subsequent tephrochronological and geochemical analyses for selected (pre-) historic volcanic eruptions in Iceland|
|Mr Marin Kneib - ETHZ, WSL||Historical Archives to monitor long-Term evolution of HImalayan debris-covered glaciers (HATHI)|
|Dr Gerald Raab - University of Zurich||Origin and timing of erratic boulders on Disko Island, Greenland.|
Project: Arctic Change: Resolving methane and CO2 concentrations and their fluxes in Baffin Bay
Keywords: Arctic Climate Change, carbon dioxide, carbon emissions, greenhouse gas, methane, ocean acidification, ocean circulation
The objective of the expedition is to collect data in and around Baffin Bay to estimate CH4 and CO2 emissions and identify areas as sources and sinks. For this reason, CH4 and CO2 concentrations and their stable carbon isotopes ratio will be measured in the air and surface waters. In addition, meteorological and oceanographic measurements will be carried out to characterise the surface water hydrodynamics that govern gas exchange with the atmosphere. The Arctic Change expedition will be performed on the sailing boat Mauritius in partnership with Fondation Pacifique. The sailboat Mauritius is an ideal platform for these measurements and provides the great opportunity to explore the shallow coastal regions around Baffin Bay with a minimal carbon footprint and contamination of the greenhouse gas measurements.
Project: Creating and continuing a record of sediment discharge from land-terminating glaciers in southwestern Greenland
Keywords: erosion/sedimentation, glacial erosion, glacier melt, glacier/ice sheet, Greenland, sediment transport
at the Watson River in Greenland exists since 2006 and offers the possibility to understand changes to sediment discharge from the ice sheet, and if the changes are large enough such that the river system captures the signal. This project aims to better understand landscape changes in Greenland by: 1) continuing this record of sediment leaving the ice sheet and being carried by the Watson River; and 2) installing other instruments along the river to better understand the sources of this sediment and the sediment transport processes. During the melt seasons of 2021 and 2022, we will install turbidity meters in select locations to record the amount of sediment leaving the catchment. This record of sediment discharge from the catchment will serve as a means to calibrate numerical models of sediment transport from the glacier and yield initial insights into the landscape changes in the region. This research remains part of a larger project to better understand the processes by which the Greenland Ice Sheet erodes its bed.
Project: Sampling campaign for volcanoclastic material for subsequent tephrochronological and geochemical analyses for selected (pre-) historic volcanic eruptions in Iceland
Keywords: Arctic Climate Change, geochemistry, Icelandic Volcanism, Medieval Climate Anomaly, Tephra
Therefore, within this project we will sample proximal volcanic material from two regions across Iceland and undertake geochemical and sulphur isotope analysis alongside existing ice-core records to 1) pinpoint the source volcano and, 2) determine the quantity of sulphur ejected into the atmosphere by these Icelandic eruptions.
Project: Historical Archives to monitor long-Term evolution of HImalayan debris-covered glaciers (HATHI)
Keywords: debris-covered glaciers, glacier thinning, historical photographs, multi-decadal changes, supraglacial features, terrestrial photogrammetry
More than 80 years later, Himalayan glaciers are undergoing extreme changes caused by anthropogenic increase in global temperatures. In recent decades, scientists have witnessed and measured accelerated glacier thinning and retreat, and accumulation of rock debris on top of the glaciers, due to enhanced melt in several locations in High Mountain Asia.
This bears consequences for water resources as these glaciers provide water to several hundreds of millions of people, and the dwindling of glacier ice will increase the vulnerability of the region to droughts. On the other hand, the development of a supra-glacial debris layer could have a melt-reduction effect on the long-term, as rock debris shields the ice from incoming radiation.
Such measurements of debris expansion and glacier thinning were possible largely thanks to high-quality satellite products with ever-increasing spatial resolution. Using spy-satellite archives, our modern remote sensing datasets on Himalayan glaciers can take us back as far as the mid-1970s for some regions. This constrains our understanding of the evolution of these glaciers and their representation in modern glacio-hydrological models, especially regarding the expansion of supra-glacial debris, which occurs on time-scales of several decades.
This project will attempt to go back further in time to reconstruct more than 80 years of changes across four glaciers in the Garhwal Himalaya of India. To achieve this, we will use the maps produced by the early Swiss explorers and retrace the steps of these expeditions to repeat the photographs they took and quantify the changes that occurred across these debris-covered glaciers using modern photogrammetry techniques.
Project: Origin and timing of erratic boulders on Disko Island, Greenland.
Keywords: 10Be, Boulders, erratic, granite, in-situ measurements
The project, “Origin and timing of erratic boulders on Disko Island, Greenland” focuses on glacial erratics, material deposited by glaciers that originated at a distance from its present position. Prominent erratics are found on Disko Island in Western Greenland, where pale granite blocks from the mainland rest on the dark basalt of the island. The goal is to identify the time of deposition and the source of these erratic boulders. The deposition ages of these granitic glacial erratic boulders will be determined with cosmogenic nuclide dating. Cosmogenic nuclides predictably form within minerals through the constant bombardment of galactic particles. By measuring the content of specific cosmogenic isotopes (e.g. 10Be), the time of exposure and thus deposition age, can be determined. The origin of the glacial deposits will be traced back by comparing the chemical signature of the erratic boulders with the various basement rocks of the Western Greenland basement.
The results on Disko Island will provide important constraints to determine the thinning and timing of deglaciation of the former ice stream covering Disko Bugt. It will further provide a firm basis for modelling of material transport and ice-flow direction, as well as a minimum age constraint for the rock glaciers that are researched by the RockDynDisko project.